• Mustafa Burak Turkoz Karabuk University
  • Asaf Tolga Ulgen Sırnak University
  • Gurcan YILDIRIM Abant Izzet Baysal University



Bi-2223 Ceramics, Bi Particles, Vickers Microhardness, Responsibility to Forces


The influence of bismuth particle on the core mechanical properties of crystal structure of bulk Bi2.1+xSr2.0Ca2.1Cu3.0Oy (Bi-2223) ceramic workpieces has been investigated via Vickers hardness (Hv) experiments. The experimental results derived from the hardness experiments have revealed a significant deterioration in crystal structure quality, mechanical durability, critical crack length, slip systems, stress amplified sites, fracture strength, stress raiser sites, stored internal strain sites, deformation degree and crystal structure faults throughout the bulk Bi-2223 ceramic matrix due to increased stored internal strain sites, deformation degree, stress amplified sites, stress raiser sites, and connection problems between the stacked adjacent layers. Further, the responsibility to the external forces has increased regularly with the enhancement in the bismuth particles in the lattice. Hence, the sample with the maximum bismuth particles in the lattice has possessed the highest response to the external forces. Moreover, the addition of bismuth particles has led to the propagation of irreversible defects, cracks, and dislocations primarily through transgranular sites rather than transcrystalline regions. Additionally, although every ceramic material has exhibited standard rand ISE behavior, the strength of ISE character has reduced with increasing the bismuth impurity. Furthermore, from the hardness results, distinctions in the elastic hardness coefficient (C11), fracture toughness (KIC), yield strength (Y), and brittle index (B) parameters have been identified.

Author Biographies

Mustafa Burak Turkoz, Karabuk University

Engineering Faculty, TURKIYE

Asaf Tolga Ulgen, Sırnak University

Engineering Faculty, TURKIYE

Gurcan YILDIRIM, Abant Izzet Baysal University

Engineering Faculty, TURKIYE




How to Cite

Turkoz, M. B., Ulgen, A. T., & YILDIRIM, G. (2023). CHANGE OF MECHANICAL PERFORMANCES OF BI2.1+xSr2.0Ca2.1Cu3.0OY CERAMICS. AS-Proceedings, 1(7), 327–335.